This project, like every other, began with an idea. No, scratch that, it began with THE idea. Our new growing family was running out of space in our rented apartment, and we needed a new home. After some searching, we found a local builder with a stock floor plan that we liked. During our contract meetings, there were a number of modifications we made to the design to suit our needs. During one such meeting, I realized that if I moved a closet, there was a perfect spot for an in-wall aquarium!
Now I had no grandiose plans at the time. I thought a large aquarium in the wall would be neat, and have always wanted a larger aquarium. I gave the builder the tentative size of 100 gallons, and in my mind set a tentative budget of $1000 (silly me!) for it. I could DIY most of it right?
I had some time before the home was to be built, so I began to do some research. I remembered seeing some lush photos of dutch style planted aquariums in books when I was young. Surely I could have such a tank with minimal time, effort, or money, right? I certainly did not want plastic plants in hot pink gravel with sea chests that bubbled and plastic divers. So I began to read... and read. When I was a youth, I had kept a number of aquariums successfully, even breeding a number of species, but never more than a few easy to grow plants. Lighting? CO2? Substrate? I guess there was more to planted aquariums than I initially thought. The more I delved, the more interested I became in a freshwater planted utopia.
My sources were diverse. Web sites like www.plantedtank.net, and www.thekrib.com, where George Booth detailed his entire "Super Show Tank" setup, were wonderful. I obtained a number of books as well, from the Dupla brand oriented "The Optimum Aquarium," to the eye-popping "Nature Aquarium World" books by Amano. I was hooked. I began to form an equipment plan to meet each aspect of keeping aquatic plants. As planning progressed, my plans became more complex, and I will admit I probably went overboard, but it sure was fun!
To begin, I had to decide on the aquarium size and height. I also gave consideration to whether it would be glass or acrylic. I was under some pressure, as I had to give the final dimensions of the aquarium to the builder so the framers would know how large to make the opening. After some visual experimentation, my wife and I decided we liked 5'x2' for the viewing area, and we found 42" from the floor seemed viewable both sitting and standing up. I decided on glass for the construction, as I think acrylic scratches too easily, and I like the "mirror" effect of the side panels when looking in from the front. Since this would be a fairly permanent installation, I realized I probably should not skimp on the part that holds the water. To that end, I decided on an aquarium made by Oceanic Systems, who many consider to be a top notch fabricator, maybe the best using glass. They also made a standard 110 gallon aquarium with the dimensions of 60.5" x 18.5" x 23" that I found to be perfect. I find aquarium lengths of 60" more visually appealing than 48" or 72" and it fit the wall space the best. For depth, I had considered 24 inches, but after having looked at some tanks in person, I actually preferred only 18 inches, and felt it would lend itself well to aquascaping. Finally, a height of 23 inches was visually appealing, would allow enough light to the bottom, and would allow me to work in the tank easily. (I am 6 feet tall)
I was not ready to actually order the tank, as I had no place to store it, so I contacted Oceanic regarding some details including the EXACT dimensions of the aquarium, since some companies only ballpark dimensions in product material, and I needed it for the hole in my wall. I also planned to have a sump (more details on this later), so I verified that I could order it with "Twin Flow" corner overflows as installed in some All-Glass aquariums, which I preferred. As many of you know, Oceanic Systems was purchased by All-Glass Aquariums, and operated independently at the time of my purchase. Now I believe that they are both owned by Central Garden and Pet, but I digress. I was assured of the details by Oceanic, but there was to be a small problem later.
I gave the dimensions to the builder, and specified a height a foot larger than the aquarium, as I was going to do some custom framing that would not block much light, as seen in the framing photos. I also was concerned with weight. My home was to have a crawl space, and the tank was parallel with the floor joists. I requested extra floor joists in the area to boost the floor strength, and after the floor was in, added a wooden cross beam supported by steel jack posts. In addition, two separate dedicated circuits were to be provided, as well as power to an exhaust fan.
It was with great excitement that I watched construction of the home begin. There had been extensive delays in the building project, for various unrelated issues. Pretty soon the aquarium would have a new home... err I mean our family would have a new home. Yea, that's it! :)
I will not bore you with construction details, but I was able to do some custom 2x6 framing above the aquarium as intended, and more than enough support will be provided for the aquarium with double floor joists and steel support columns on concrete blocks. Fan framing through the plant ledge into the vaulted great room area was also done, as well as the required electrical work and dedicated circuits. Safety is always a concern when working around electricity and water, so GFCI protection was added for each outlet save one, in case we would like to bypass GFCI during vacations or at other such times. (Rest assured, this would not be done unless necessary due to inadvertent tripping, when there was no chance of a person working on the aquarium) Finally, laminate flooring was laid in the aquarium "closet" to provide a better base for the stand, and provide a better surface than carpet in regard to dripping water.
Once the home construction was complete, we were left with an unfinished hole in the drywall slightly larger than the aquarium dimensions. So far so good. A Broan brand through-wall fan was installed in the plant ledge above the aquarium area. The fan model is controlled by a rheostat, and can blow 360 cfm, which is serious overkill for the space, and was turned to its lowest setting to minimize noise. The area is designed to be a closet should the home be sold at some point. Minimal framing and drywall would be required to convert it once the aquarium equipment was removed.
Tank and Stand
Since the aquarium support area will not be visible, the stand was built using 2x4 construction, and painted flat white using cheap latex paint. In hindsight, I would have used heavy duty garage floor epoxy paint, but it is still fully functional as is. Precise planning was used to accommodate the size of the sump and other equipment. A support brace was built with hinges that open allowing the sump to be installed or removed after the stand was in place. The stand is 42" high, matching the lip of the hole in the wall, and was screwed directly to the wall studs. A 3/4" piece of plywood was screwed into the stand and lip of the framed wall hole to provide the surface the aquarium will rest on. The surface was triple checked to be straight and level. Even after precise measurement and planning, once the aquarium was filled there was a very slight lean towards the rear of the tank visible with a level due to weight, likely caused by a compression of the subfloor material below the laminate flooring. Should the tank ever be fully drained, I will shim the stand very slightly, but it is minor enough that I am not concerned with it at this time.
Because I live in an area with a dearth of local aquarium stores, I had some difficulty ordering the aquarium. Oceanic Systems only works with local retailers and will not sell directly to a consumer. The owner of the main LFS (local fish store) in my area did not even know he was an Oceanic distributor. In the end, I had to work with Oceanic by phone in preparing my order, and they in turn forwarded it to my local shop, who in fairness sold me the aquarium at just above their cost. During the order process, I found out that some of my earlier information from Oceanic was inaccurate. They could not build the aquarium with the "Twin Flow" overflows I had been assured I could get. I preferred these overflows as the footprint was smaller, and water is designed to be pulled from the middle and lower layers of the aquarium in addition to the surface. After talking to a number of people, I was given a couple of choices. I could get the standard size "reef ready" aquarium with dual Oceanic style overflows with the correct dimensions, or I could get a custom tank that was one inch taller with the "Twin Flow" overflows at almost double the price. I also considered using Starphire glass at this time for the front pane. For those that do not know, Starphire glass is a low iron content premium glass that is very clear, and does not have a green tint like normal glass, but is much more expensive. I finally opted for the dual Oceanic style overflows and no Starphire glass, as the taller aquarium would have caused some problems since the hole was already framed. Also, the representative from Oceanic assured me that their style overflow footprint was not much different, so the extra cost was not really justified. The aquarium is 60.5" L x 18.5" W x 23" H and has 1/2" plate glass. Each of the dual overflows is drilled with a hole sized for a 1" and 3/4" bulkhead. The finish work and caulking are superb.
The aquarium was extremely heavy, even empty. I would estimate it weighs 300 pounds. I asked my father to help me (thanks dad!) lift the aquarium into place. We are both relatively large men, and trust me when I say we used every ounce of strength to position the aquarium without causing any damage. The aquarium was placed on a blue exercise / yoga mat that resembles dense neoprene foam to neutralize any small variance in the stand surface.
Plumbing and Filtration
It was my goal early on to use a wet/dry sump type filtration system. A sump provides a number of benefits which include hiding equipment, maintaining the water line, providing easy access, and increasing the total water volume. They also add additional complexity and expense. In my research, I noted some controversy regarding sump use in planted aquaria due to CO2 loss, but after having read of testing done by people like George Booth and Tom Barr, among others, I felt confident that I could make it work. Indeed, wet/dry filters had been used and recommended by the authors of the book "The Optimum Aquarium" for many years. As a side note, after having operated the system, I feel CO2 loss in planted aquariums using sumps or wet/dry filters is exaggerated. I can maintain CO2 levels high enough to distress the fish with my system if not careful, partially due to my diffusion method, and partially due to the proper planning of water movement. As has been proven elsewhere, the "tower" portion of a wet/dry system acts as a large CO2 chamber, and the CO2 in the chamber eventually reaches equilibrium with the water, particularly if it is well sealed. I also use "durso" (named after the noted reefer Richard Durso) style standpipes in the overflows to minimize agitation. Nevertheless, a sump does use somewhat more CO2, but to me it is worth it, and CO2 is relatively cheap.
Initially I was going to DIY a wet/dry sump, but as time progressed realized I would prefer a more polished and professional look to the installation. One of my goals was to be able to fit a heater on the bottom of the sump. I finally decided on a Megaflow model 4 acrylic wet/dry filter and sump made by All-Glass Aquariums. It was large enough to provide adequate surface area for biological filtration, had space for a submersible heater, and provided a lot of extra water volume. It also looked polished, and would fit in the stand under the aquarium. Since the plumbing was to be external, a hole was drilled in the filter using a hole saw, and a bulkhead was installed. I also had some Dupla brand BioKascade bio-balls that replaced the generic brand that came with the filter, individually placed so the bio-ball vanes are roughly horizontal based on some conjecture by George Booth. There is more available surface area with the Dupla bio-balls, but I suspect there will be no difference in nitrification performance, even under heavy biological load.
Additionally, I wanted a filter to "polish" the water. I decided to also use a Lifegard mechanical canister filter module from Pentair Aquatics to filter out fine particulate matter. According to their product literature, it will filter particulates down to 5 microns. My theory was that things like green water could be managed by using such a filter without resorting to a UV sterilizer, which would ionize some nutrients that plants require. According to some of my research, most common forms of green algae are around 15 microns in size. My theory seems to be holding up, as I have never had green or cloudy water. In fact, other than during the initial setup, the water has been crystal clear. Since the Lifegard filter is right after the pump and before the CO2 reactor, it also has the effect of acting as a final pre-filter to the CO2 reactor, so no extraneous material is left to build up inside the reactor.
As I just mentioned, I opted to not install a UV filter. I had considered both an ozonizer, as well as a UV sterilizer. Ozonizers have some health concerns and are primarily used in the salt domain. Either of these will ionize some of the nutrients I would be adding that the plants needed. I do have a "portable" UV sterilizer than can be hung on the sump as necessary should the need arise. So far it hasn't. In the end, I plumbed an extra capped bypass that could flow back to the sump or be used for future expansion.
That brings us to pump selection. I had never operated an aquarium with a sump, and had absolutely no idea regarding flow requirements, head loss, or other plumbing considerations. Nor did I have any opinions on pumps that were available. Much of my plumbing and electrical advice was from reef tank owners, who required extremely high flow. I did find advice to turn over a freshwater planted tank anywhere from 1 to 5 times per hour, depending on the source, which was still somewhat broad. After some research I decided on a Poseidon PS2 external pump that would pump 650gph @ 3' head. These pumps are known to be reliable and absolutely silent. The main disadvantage is they are water cooled and add a fair amount of heat to the water, which I felt I could work with. These pumps are identical to a number of other brand names, including CustomSeaLife Velocity pumps, as well as some Laing Thermotech pumps. In my design I can quickly swap out a pump with multiple models from multiple brands and still have nearly identical flow. For instance I could use a Poseidon PS1 or PS2, and with my head loss, the water flow would be almost identical.
Even though the system was starting to get more complex, I did not want to add complexity by plumbing redundant pumps. I wanted one pump to provide the water movement for the entire system. I also did not want any additional powerheads for things like the CO2 reactor. Obviously, having redundant pumps adds some security to a system. However, I am using an alarm system that would alert me if there was a problem. I also have a new replacement pump on hand should one be required, and could swap pumps in a matter of minutes with plumbed union valves.
The return plumbing flows through a heavily modified model 1000 CO2 reactor made by Aqua Medic (Aqualine Buschke) mounted inside the stand. This is the final plumbing before the return is split and water is returned to the aquarium. The reactor was modified by expanding the water entry and exit sizes of the reactor significantly to allow higher unrestricted flow. Also, the CO2 entry inside the chamber was moved from near the bottom of the reactor to near the top, as during testing the bubbles were escaping the chamber without diffusing due to the higher flow rate. CO2 gas is able to heavily saturate the water prior to entering the aquarium. As I noted previously, this diffusion method seems to counteract much of the effect of CO2 outgassing in the wet/dry area. One additional benefit that I must admit was not pre-planned is that of "misting" CO2. A small number of CO2 bubbles manage to make it out of the chamber into the return plumbing, where they get shredded, and a fine mist of CO2 bubbles gets distributed throughout the aquarium. Noted aquatic plant expert Tom Barr has written a number of articles on the benefits of a CO2 mist, in addition to the traditional diffusion in solution.
One inch hard PVC plumbing was used in the bulk of the return plumbing to minimize frictional head loss using high quality Christy's Red Hot Blue Glue pipe cement and primer. Flexible PVC was used between the pump and the sump to allow some flexibility and isolate vibration. It was also used to make a long sweep from the mechanical filter to the CO2 reactor so excessive elbows would not be required, which cause additional head loss. The pump was installed with Spears brand union ball valves on each side to allow easy removal or maintenance. The final return plumbing splits into 3/4" hard PVC plumbing to each of the returns. Gate valves were installed to fine tune flow rates, but are currently left wide open. Also, flow meters monitor each return line. My measured flow with valves fully open is about 200-225 gph per return for a total of 400-450 gph, which is nearly perfect in my view, although I can easily reduce this as necessary. As a side note, I had the privilege of working with King Brothers Industries (KBI) for many of my PVC needs, and would like to heartily endorse their products, and mention that they are one of the few (maybe only?) remaining PVC manufacturers left in the United States. And no, I am not affiliated with KBI in any way.
The overflow plumbing also warrants some explanation. Black nylon mosquito netting was cut and hot glued over the teeth of each overflow to prevent tiny fish from getting through. The "durso" style standpipes also have a number of unusual features. The standpipes themselves are height adjustable, using a portion of the "Megaflow" overflow kits available from All-Glass Aquariums. The top of the standpipe was tapped and a nylon air valve was added for fine tuning. The one inch perforated pipe that came with the aquarium was used as a strainer prior to draining through the standpipe. Once again one inch hard PVC was used for most of the overflow plumbing and low torque ball valves were strategically installed for maintenance purposes.
The right overflow drains to a "P" trap where probe holders are mounted inline for temperature, pH, and ORP. There is a siphon break made from John Guest style fittings and R/O tubing, which I was not certain was necessary, but was added anyway. This keeps water in the trap surrounding the probes during power losses, as they cannot dry out or they become damaged and useless. The left side includes drain plumbing to a garden hose fitting. A garden hose can be attached to a brass hose bibb and the volume of the sump can be drained quickly using the power of the pump. I did not know if this would prove adequate for my needs as I intended to use the Barr "Estimative Index" for fertilization, which requires larger water changes. Nevertheless, the option was added. I also have the option of hooking up other water change aids to the installed brass hose bibb, so there are a number of easy drain options. Finally, each drain is connected to the wet/dry filter via short Amiracle brand vacuum hoses, allowing easy removal of the sump should it be necessary, in comparison to full hard PVC plumbing.
The aquarium plumbing was leak tested for three weeks, and no leaks were found with the exception of an extremely tiny drip from a fitting in the CO2 reactor, which was installed at the factory. Replacing the Teflon tape on the fitting corrected the issue. A stress test of the plumbing and pump was performed using the gauge on the Lifegard filter module. I measured ~2.5 psi working pressure in the plumbing during normal operation, and ~8 psi pressure with the return valves fully closed so no water could flow. No leaks were found and I was extremely relieved, as I have never done plumbing before, and was anxious that all my hard work would end up a disaster.
Electrical and Control
The electrical system must be discussed with the control system due to the use of an Aquacontroller II computer controller made by Neptune Systems. Automation and monitoring capabilities were important to me, so I invested in this wonderful device. The Aquacontroller II uses home automation X-10 protocol to transmit commands to X-10 control modules through home electrical wiring, allowing me to control all devices based on parameters I set. There can be some reliability issues with X-10 hardware, but since I had dedicated circuits, there were no issues for me. In addition, the Aquacontroller repeats commands at a specified frequency which gives the system redundancy and reliability. An electrical panel was created on the wall to the right of the aquarium with a bank of outlets and X-10 control modules. It provides both easy access and a measure of safety being away from the wet areas. There is also a recessed Tripp-Lite power strip mounted under the stand for select equipment. Under cabinet fluorescent lights were installed in the stand which makes maintenance much easier.
The following devices are controlled by the Aquacontroller II using X-10 control modules.
LT1: Hamilton Technology deluxe hood, 175 watt metal halide lighting
LT2: Hamilton Technology deluxe hood, 40 watt NO fluorescent lighting
LT3: Blueline auto-dim moonlights, dimmable using custom moon cycle programming
HT1: Dupla Duplatherm 1000 substrate heating cable
HT2: Ebo-Jager 250 watt sump heater
FN1: Vornado mountable sump cooling fan
FN2: O2 Cool job site supplemental fan/light on moveable arm
CO2: JBJ CO2 regulator
PMP: Poseidon PS2 pump
ALM: Piezoelectric sounder alarm
All electrical equipment is protected by a premium quality Zero Surge brand surge protector marketed to high tech reef aquarium owners, model 8R15W-AQUA, plugged into a GFCI protected outlet. In addition a titanium ground probe was installed in the aquarium as a safety precaution. An alarm device to detect leaks called "The Screamer!" by Coralife was installed in the sump and plumbing area. A Lifegard Big Digital Temp Alert digital thermometer by Pentair Aquatics was mounted to the face of the control panel for easy viewing.
The Aquacontroller II monitors temperature, pH, and ORP, and has numerous programming capabilities. Some examples are as follows. If the water temperature gets above the set point, the sump cooling fan turns on automatically. A supplemental fan turns on for 15 minutes each hour exhausting heat and moisture through a vent in the ceiling. CO2 injection is controlled by pH. Alarms are set for water parameters that go outside of certain bounds. I also work out of town regularly, and I can monitor or change parameters online or have alarms sent to email or a pager.
Lighting is provided by a Hamilton Technology 48" deluxe metal halide and fluorescent fixture suspended 12" above the aquarium. I initially thought I would require a 60" fixture to match the tank, but after some thought, realized the halide bulbs would be much too close to the ends of the tank with such a fixture. The hood has two 175 watt metal halide lights with a color temperature of 5500K, and two 40 watt normal output fluorescent fixtures with a Penn Plax Aquari-lux bulb and a Phillips Plant and Aquarium bulb. Light coverage is excellent. A dimmable blue LED moonlight system from Blueline that allows for nocturnal viewing was installed as well. I do not subscribe to the "watts per gallon" rule as used by many aquarists to describe their lighting setup. There are just too many variables. Nevertheless, I am at 3.2 wpg with just metal halide lighting, or 3.9 wpg with the additional fluorescent lighting. I do not think the fluorescent lighting provides much to the plants, however, due to intensity, as they are mounted a foot above the aquarium. I consider them primarily a viewing light.
The metal halide lighting and fluorescent lighting are independently controlled. The current photo period is as follows. The metal halide lights come on at noon. They start very dim and take about 15 minutes to reach full brilliance, which likely is easier on nervous or light sensitive fish. The fluorescents then come on at 2 pm. The metal halides turn off at 10 pm, and the fluorescent lighting remains on until midnight, providing a nice "sunset" like effect. At midnight, the blue moonlights gradually get brighter and remain on until 2 am when they slowly fade. The photoperiod is automated with use of the Aquacontroller II.
This lighting combination was selected for a number of reasons. First, metal halides provide "point source" lighting and as such, provide a wonderful shimmer from any surface ripples that is hard to describe effectively. Also, both 175 watt mogul metal halide bulbs and normal output 40 watt fluorescent bulbs are easily obtainable and relatively cheap. While the hardware for the aquarium was quite expensive, I was interested in reasonable long term maintenance costs. In addition, I am particularly picky about viewing light in an aquarium, and there is a huge variety of color temperatures and types of bulbs to experiment with should I find it to be necessary.
Since the lighting fixture is not viewable from the display side of the tank, looks were not particularly important, but the Hamilton hood is a serviceable unit that is reasonably attractive. For what it's worth, if I were installing a viewable fixture, I would opt for a Giesemann brand german fixture. I consider Giesemann to be near the top in aquarium lighting for quality and sleek styling, but they have a price to match, and have bulbs and parts that are harder find and replace. The Hamilton hood was fitted with black hanging hooks and chain to match the finish, and suspended 12" above the aquarium on a track system that allows the fixture to be rolled to each side. This allows me to work on one half of the aquarium at a time with nothing overhead if I choose to. The separate ballasts are mounted just above the electrical panel with the other electrical equipment. I had initially been concerned with heat from the lighting causing problems, but with the two fans mounted by Hamilton in the hood and the venting I have provided the area, the heat impact is much less than I expected, almost negligible.
Heating for the aquarium is provided in two forms. The main source of heating is a Dupla brand Duplatherm 1000 substrate heating cable. It is powered by a Duplamat 300 step down transformer and provides 250 watts of heating using 24 volts. The transformer was obtained from Hawaiian Marine Imports, who is a Dupla brand importer, but they unfortunately could not also provide the substrate cables I needed. I speak limited German, but I imported the heating cables directly from Dupla in Germany as I was unable to find any in the United States after extensive searching. Now, I am aware that substrate heating has fallen out of favor, although there are still some who debate its usefulness. I will be the first to admit there are some amazing planted aquariums with no substrate heaters. My only response is that I was in a position to use them, and chose to try it on the off chance they have some beneficial effect. While I am not a staunch defender of heating cable technology, I can see the possibility of some longer term benefits, and have read enough anecdotal evidence that I cannot dismiss them out of hand. At the very least, they will not hurt anything. Also, they are the only source of heat in the actual aquarium. So there! :)
The cables came with suction cups that are used to attach the cable to the bottom of the tank, and since there was only one chance to install them, special care was taken when placing them in the aquarium. I could describe how they were laid out, but there are photos that show the final product. It took a long time getting them just right, and frankly, it wore me out! The transformer and cables are turned on and off by the Aquacontroller II, which acts as a temperature controller. The temperature is currently maintained at 75 degrees.
A secondary Ebo-Jager 250 watt heater was installed in the bottom of the sump as a backup. The temperature was set to 75 degrees on the heater itself, and 72 degrees in the Aquacontroller II. In this way, there is a redundant fail safe where if one of the thermostats fails for some reason, the aquarium would not get cooked.
A fully automated CO2 injection system provides for the needs of the aquarium. The CO2 is stored in a 20 lb. CO2 cylinder made by Catalina Cylinders and uses a high quality Sherwood valve. A JBJ CO2 regulator with integrated solenoid, needle valve, bubble counter, and check valve is connected to the CO2 cylinder with MK II perma-seal obtained from Rex Grigg. Distilled water is used for the bubble counter and green CO2 proof tubing leads to a secondary Dennerle check valve before it goes to the inline plumbed reactor. The pH is monitored in real time by the Aquacontroller II, which also acts as a pH controller and turns the solenoid on or off.
A drop checker with a 4 KH reference solution allows reasonably accurate CO2 readings. As described earlier, a heavily modified Aqua Medic Reactor 1000 is used for diffusion. CO2 levels are maintained at ~25-30ppm in solution. In addition, there is some CO2 gas that "mists" the aquarium, shown to be extremely beneficial to aquatic plants.
Four types of substrate have been added to the aquarium. The bottom layer covering the substrate heating cables is comprised of one 15.4 lb. bag of regular Flourite mixed with 5000 grams of Terralit by Aqua Medic. Terralit is a zeolite based substrate with an extremely high cation exchange capacity (CEC) while Flourite has a very high iron content. My theory is that if there is any benefit to using substrate heating cables, it would be advantageous to a have high CEC substrate with which to exchange nutrients, and iron available for the plants. The next layer is a mixture of Flourite Dark, and Estes brand Bits O' Walnut gravel with a grain size of 1-3mm. Flourite Dark is new at the time of this writing, and is much more appealing visually in my view than regular Flourite. When rinsing the Flourite, I noticed that the dark variety was much less messy and required much less rinsing. I suspect the nutrient content is slightly different between the two products. Whether this is good or not, I can not say. The Estes gravel was chosen for the smaller grain size and for aesthetics. The substrate is approximately 3 inches in depth.
There is now a beautiful picture of nature in my living area, and it cannot be overstated how pleasing and relaxing a lush aquarium can be. This project has provided me years of pleasure, and I look forward to many more enjoying God's creation. If you have any comments or questions, you can email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.