Element Information
Atomic Numbers 41 through 50

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   This page contains basic information about elements with atomic numbers 41 through 50.  I have tried to make sure the information given here is correct.  However, if you find a mistake, please e-mail me at apurdy@centurytel.net, and I will correct it as soon as possible.

 

Niobium                         multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table

Symbol Nb Name Niobium
Atomic Number 41 Atomic Mass 92.906amu
Melting Point 2468C Boiling Point 4927C
Protons/Electrons 41 Neutrons 52
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 6.49 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 5
Electronegativity 1.6 Atomic Radius 146 pm
# of Isotopes 1 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure cubic
Charles Hatchet first discovered Niobium in 1801, and he named it columbium.  It was then rediscovered in 1844 by Heinrich Rose, and he gave it the name of niobium.                              

Uses - stainless steel, magnets

 

Molybdenum                     multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table

Symbol Mo Name Molybdenum
Atomic Number 42 Atomic Mass 95.94 amu
Melting Point 2610C Boiling Point 5560C
Protons/Electrons 42 Neutrons 54
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 10.22 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 6
Electronegativity 2.24 Atomic Radius 139 pm
# of Isotopes 7 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure cubic
Molybdenum was discovered in 1778 by Carl William Scheele.                            

Uses - alloy agent for steel, electrodes, catalysts, tool-steel, aircraft and missle parts

 

Technetium                   multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)Click here to return to periodic table              

Symbol Tc Name Technetium
Atomic Number 43 Atomic Mass (99) amu
Melting Point 2172C Boiling Point 4877C
Protons/Electrons 43 Neutrons 56
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 11.5 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 7
Electronegativity 1.9 Atomic Radius 136 pm
# of Isotopes 0 Color silvery-gray
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Technetium was discovered in 1937 by Carlo Perrier.                                          

Uses - medical imaging agents, radioactive tracer

 

Ruthenium                      multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table           

Symbol Ru Name Ruthenium
Atomic Number 44 Atomic Mass 101.07 amu
Melting Point 2250C Boiling Point 3900C
Protons/Electrons 44 Neutrons 57
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 12.3 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 8
Electronegativity 2.2 Atomic Radius 134 pm
# of Isotopes 7 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 by Karl Klaus.                                             

Uses - catalysts, platinum alloys

 

Rhodium                      multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table             

Symbol Rh Name Rhodium
Atomic Number 45 Atomic Mass 102.905 amu
Melting Point 1966C Boiling Point 3727C
Protons/Electrons 45 Neutrons 58
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 12.41 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 9
Electronegativity 2.28 Atomic Radius 134 pm
# of Isotopes 1 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure cubic
Rhodium was discoverd in 1803 by William Wollaston.                                

Uses - catalysts, electrical contacts, optical instruments, jewelry, part of the catalytic convertor system in cars

 

Palladium                     multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table             

Symbol Pd Name Palladium
Atomic Number 46 Atomic Mass 106.40 amu
Melting Point 1552C Boiling Point 2927C
Protons/Electrons 46 Neutrons 60
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 11.97 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 10
Electronegativity 2.2 Atomic Radius 137 pm
# of Isotopes 6 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure cubic
Palladium was discovered in 1803 by William Wollaston.                                

Uses - catalyst for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, dental crowns, jewelry, medical instruments, electrical contacts

 

Silver                           multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table              

Symbol Ag Name Silver
Atomic Number 47 Atomic Mass 107.868 amu
Melting Point 961.9C Boiling Point 2212C
Protons/Electrons 47 Neutrons 61
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 10.5 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 11
Electronegativity 1.93 Atomic Radius 144 pm
# of Isotopes 2 Color silver
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure cubic

Silver has been known since prehistoric times.                                                       

Uses - photography, coins, jewelry, silverware, dental alloys, electrical contacts, mirror production

           

 

Cadmium                   multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table                

Symbol Cd Name Cadmium
Atomic Number 48 Atomic Mass 112.40 amu
Melting Point 321C Boiling Point 765C
Protons/Electrons 48 Neutrons 64
Classification Metal State Solid
Density 8.65 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 12
Electronegativity 1.69 Atomic Radius 151 pm
# of Isotopes 8 Color bluish-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Friedrich Strohmeyer discovered cadmium in 1817 in a sample of zinc carbonate, and independently, K.S.L. Hermann and J.C.H. Roloff found cadmium at the same time in a speciment of zinc oxide.

Uses
- batteries, yellow pigment (in compound with sulfur), control rods and shields  in nuclear reactors, TV tube phosphors

 

Indium                      multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table               

Symbol In Name Indium
Atomic Number 49 Atomic Mass 114.818
Melting Point 156.6C Boiling Point 2080C
Protons/Electrons 49 Neutrons 66
Classification Other Metal State Solid
Density 7.31 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 13
Electronegativity 1.78 Atomic Radius 167 pm
# of Isotopes 2 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure tetragonal
Indium was discovered in 1863 by Theodor Richter and Ferdinand Reich.

Uses - transistors, photocells, coating of some bearings, solders

 

Tin                           multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table               

Symbol Sn Name Tin
Atomic Number 50 Atomic Mass 118.71 amu
Melting Point 231.9C Boiling Point 2260C
Protons/Electrons 50 Neutrons 69
Classification Other Metal State Solid
Density 7.31 g/cm3 Period/Group 5 / 14
Electronegativity 1.88 Atomic Radius 140.5 pm
# of Isotopes 10 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 5 Crystal Structure tetragonal
Tin was known in prehistoric times.     

Uses - solder, pewter, bronze, coating for steel cans ("tin cans") and other metals

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