Element Information
Atomic Numbers 21 through 30

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    This page contains basic information about elements with atomic numbers 21-30.  I have tried to make sure the information is correct, but if you find a mistake, please e-mail me at apurdy@centurytel.net, and I will correct it as soon as possible.

Scandium                           multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table 

Symbol Sc Name Scandium
Atomic Number 21 Atomic Mass 44.956 amu
Melting Point 1539C Boiling Point 2832C
Protons/Electrons 21 Neutrons 24
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 2.989 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 3
Electronegativity 1.36 Atomic Radius 162 pm
# of Isotopes 1 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Dimitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of scandium in 1871 as ekaboron.  Lars Fredrik Nolson discovered its oxide, scandia, in 1879, and Per Teodor Cleve identified scandium in 1879 with the hypothetical ekaboron.                                                

Uses - component of alloys used to make metallic baseball bats, isotope tracing in crude oil analysis

 

Titanium                          multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table

Symbol Ti Name Titanium
Atomic Number 22 Atomic Mass 47.90 amu
Melting Point 1675C Boiling Point 3260C
Protons/Electrons 22 Neutrons 26
Classification Tansition Metal State Solid
Density 4.5 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 4
Electronegativity 1.54 Atomic Radius 147 pm
# of Isotopes 5 Color gray
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure hexagonal
A compound of titanium and oxygen was discovered in 1791 by the English chemist and mineralogist William Gregor.  It was independently rediscovered and named by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1795.                                                        

Uses - steel, white pigment, paint, rubber, paper, propeller shafts

 

Vanadium                      multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table           

Symbol V Name Vanadium
Atomic Number 23 Atomic Mass 50.942 amu
Melting Point 1890C Boiling Point ~ 3000C
Protons/Electrons 23 Neutrons 28
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 5.96 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 5
Electronegativity 1.63 Atomic Radius 134 pm
# of Isotopes 2 Color white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by the Spanish mineralogist Andrs Manuel del Rio.                                      

Uses - tool steel, dye, color-fixer,catalyst

 

Chromium                      multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table          

Symbol Cr Name Chromium
Atomic Number 24 Atomic Mass 51.996 amu
Melting Point 1890C Boiling Point 2482C
Protons/Electrons 24 Neutrons 28
Classification Tansition Metal State Solid
Density 7.20 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 6
Electronegativity 1.66 Atomic Radius 128 pm
# of Isotopes 4 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Chromium was discovered in 1797 by the French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin, and isolated as the metal a year later.                                                

Uses - paint, steel, plating, tanning leather

 

Manganese                    multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table             

Symbol Mn Name Manganese
Atomic Number 25 Atomic Mass 54.938 amu
Melting Point 1244C Boiling Point 2097C
Protons/Electrons 25 Neutrons 30
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 7.20 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 7
Electronegativity 1.55 Atomic Radius 127 pm
# of Isotopes 1 Color grayish-white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Manganese was recognized as an element in 1774 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.  It was isolated the same year by Scheele's associate, Johan Gottlieb Gahn.                            

Uses - production of steel, batteries, ceramics, alloys

 

Iron                               multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)  Click here to return to periodic table          

Symbol Fe Name Iron
Atomic Number 26 Atomic Mass 55.847
Melting Point 1535C Boiling Point 3000C
Protons/Electrons 26 Neutrons 30
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 7.86 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 8
Electronegativity 1.9 Atomic Radius 126 pm
# of Isotopes 4 Color gray
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Iron was known by the ancients.           

Uses - steel and other alloys, decorative heavy-duty gates

 

Cobalt                          multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)Click here to return to periodic table              

Symbol Co Name Cobalt
Atomic Number 27 Atomic Mass 58.9332 amu
Melting Point 1495C Boiling Point 2908C
Protons/Electrons 27 Neutrons 32
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 8.9 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 9
Electronegativity 1.88 Atomic Radius 125 pm
# of Isotopes 1 Color bluish white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Cobalt was isolated in 1735 by a Swedish chemist, Georg Brandt, but compounds had been used for centuries to impart a blue color to glazes and ceramics.                                                

Uses - alloys used in jet engines, magnets, cobalt glass (blue), ceramics, radiotherapeutic agent

 

Nickel                          multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)Click here to return to periodic table              

Symbol Ni Name Nickel
Atomic Number 28 Atomic Mass 58.71 amu
Melting Point 1453C Boiling Point 2732C
Protons/Electrons 28 Neutrons 31
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 8.90 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 10
Electronegativity 1.91 Atomic Radius 124 pm
# of Isotopes 5 Color silvery-white
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Nickel was first isolated in 1751 by a Swedish chemist and mineralogist, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt.             

Uses - alloys, coins, batteries, electroplating

 

Copper                           multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)Click here to return to periodic table             

Symbol Cu Name Copper
Atomic Number 29 Atomic Mass 63.546 amu
Melting Point 1083C Boiling Point 2595C
Protons/Electrons 29 Neutrons 35
Classification Transition Metal State Solid
Density 8.92 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 11
Electronegativity 1.95 Atomic Radius 128 pm
# of Isotopes 2 Color rust
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure cubic
Copper was first used as a substitute for stone by Neolithic man.                         

Uses - electrical wire, bronze, coins, jewelry, plumbing

 

Zinc                          multicolored.gif (1741 bytes)Click here to return to periodic table               

Symbol Zn Name Zinc
Atomic Number 30 Atomic Mass 65.37 amu
Melting Point 419C Boiling Point 907C
Protons/Electrons 30 Neutrons 35
Classification Metal State Solid
Density 7.13 g/cm3 Period/Group 4 / 12
Electronegativity 1.65 Atomic Radius 134 pm
# of Isotopes 5 Color silvery
Energy Levels 4 Crystal Structure hexagonal
Zinc was known in Roman times in combination with copper as the alloy brass.  The metallurgists of India isolated the metal around the 13th century, and in the 16th century, there was large-scale production of zinc by the metallurgists of China.                    

Uses - batteries, galvanizing, brass, roof cladding, protection for iron structures, coins

 

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